Redwood Empire Structural Grades of from Clear All Heart to Construction Common

Towering redwoods inspire awe, and old-growth redwood forests are almost mystical places. Redwoods aren’t just majestic trees, however. The lumber produced from the trees is attractive and weather resistant, and its advantages over other woods for outdoor building applications has given rise to a thriving redwood timber industry.

Clear All Heart
The highest quality architectural grade, clear all heart redwood is entirely heartwood, and certified to be free of defects on at least one face. According to California’s Redwood Inspection Service, this wood is best for siding, trim, and high end garden structures.
Heart B
This grade of lumber contains only heartwood, but has some knots and other visual defects not permitted in the higher grade. It makes attractive siding and paneling, and also works well in trim, decks, garden structures and other outdoor buildings.
Deck Heart
This heartwood-only lumber contains imperfections, such as knots, and is further graded for its strength characteristics. Intended specifically for use in decks and railings, this specialty grade of redwood lumber comes only in 2x4 and 2x6 dimensions.
The appearance of this lumber is similar to that of deck heart. However, construction heart comes in a wider range of shapes and sizes. It’s best used in decks, retaining walls, posts and other applications that require the wood to come into soil contact.
Merchantable Heart
This garden grade redwood lumber may include splits, large knots and holes, but is much less costly than other types. It works well in retaining walls and forms, fences and any structure where decay or insect damage are a concern.
Redwood lumber labeled simply as clear contains some sapwood, but is generally clear of knots and other imperfections on at least one face. It works well for above ground uses like decking, soffits and panels.
B Grade
This redwood sapwood lumber may include limited small knots and imperfections, but must be structurally stable and lack large imperfections. It does well when used as molding, siding, fascia and decking, but should not be used below or in contact with the ground.
Deck Common
Similar to deck heart grade, this lumber is meant for use in decks, but contains some sapwood. Like deck heart lumber, it comes only in a few sizes and has been graded for strength as well as appearance. It’s most often used in railings and in portions of decks that do not touch the ground.
Construction Common
This redwood lumber is similar to construction heart lumber, with the addition of sapwood. Like other sapwood lumber, it does poorly when in contact with the ground, and should be reserved for railings, decking and similar uses.
Merchantable sapwood is an economical grade, which may contain splits, large knots, holes and other appearance problems. As it has a lower insect and rot resistance than pure heartwood, it’s best used in fence boards, railings and temporary structures.